Using pioneering techniques to fabricate layered heterostructures we explore both fundamental physics and novel device applications resulting from the interplay between structural form at the nano-scale and electron behaviour. Presently our efforts focus on hexagonal crystalline materials that can be exfoliated down to single atomic layers. We then build up layered heterostrucutres by successive lamination of these 2D sheets in combination with state of the art nanofabrication processes. In addition to graphene, the material list includes the transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2, WeSe2, NbSe2, etc. as well as the insulating isomorph of graphene, hexagonal-BN.